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The Science and Psychology of Handwriting

The scientists claim that numerous irritations of various quality and intensity are continuously received on the large brain hemisphere, both from the external environment and from the internal environment of the organism itself. All this encounters, collides, interacts and should eventually be systematized, balanced, so to speak, end with a dynamic stereotype in the process of handwriting.

The writing of letters, the spatial arrangement of elements and their number, the points of change in the direction of motion, the presence of superstructure and suborder elements serve as reference points that allow you to distinguish letters. Obviously, these features are most important in the formation of a dynamic stereotype of the letter, since they are the basis of the development of written and motor skills.

Dynamic stereotype, which is formed during the training - conservative. Therefore, attempts to change the handwriting or to execute a false manuscript, even after long-term training, in most cases are unsuccessful. Experiments on the study of motor activity of humans by this research center and  this company have shown that in developing the motor skill in the central nervous system there is a "prediction" of the action that must be performed by a person. In this case, an important role is played by afferent impulses, informing it about processes that occur in the body; they are synthesized, connected in the lower parts of the central nervous system and fit into the cortex of the brain in the form of complex compounds. The implementation of this complex afferent synthesis lies, according to N.A. Bernstein and P. K. Anokhin, the basis of the action program, that is, is the basis for the formation of the image.

P.K. Anokhin believes that at the moment when the afferent synthesis ends, in a cortex of the brain (in the opinion of O. R. Lur in his frontal areas) a special apparatus is created, which he calls an "acceptor of actions". When a person carries out any action, all afferent impulses that arise in the nerve endings of the receptors are directed to action receptors. This device, according to P. K. Anokhin, compares the result of afferent synthesis, while reflecting the production of action and the formed image. If the image of the proposed action coincides with the result of afferent synthesis, the cyclic process ends, the motion corresponds to the proposed.

If this action does not match the proposed image, there are new reactions that correct and eventually lead to the programmed result, that is, they correspond to the formed image. Thus, when executing a motor act, signals are compared with the image. As a result, some reactions are fixed, others are inhibited.

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